Hey @SanDiego01 ,
Generally, taxability of income is determined by the residence rule. A Resident refers to a person who as per the relevant laws of the Contracting States, i.e. India and the US are liable to pay tax by reason of domicile, residence, citizenship, place of management, place of incorporation, etc.
As per Article 10 of India - USA Double Taxation Avoidance Agreement, Dividends paid by a company which is a resident of a Contracting State to a resident of the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State.
Eg: If a US Company pays a dividend to an Indian Resident shareholder, then the dividend income will be liable to tax in India. Further, USA (Company paying the dividend) also has a right to tax the said dividend in their state.
However, if the beneficial shareholder is a resident of India i.e. a resident of the other contracting state, then the tax so charged shall not exceed:
(a) 15 per cent of the gross amount of the dividends if the beneficial owner is a company which owns at least 10 per cent of the voting stock of the company paying the dividends.
(b) 25 per cent of the gross amount of the dividends in all other cases.
You can additionally refer below article for more insights about DTAA:
Further, you can also file your tax returns and claim the foreign tax credit as well.
I hope, it helps!